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In hyponatremia the level of sodium found in the patient's blood is below the normal amount. It has the potential to cause a case of rhabdomyolysis. Keep in mind that there are various forms of hyponatremia, and whether or not rhabdomyolysis can be caused by every form (classification, as well as underlying cause) is beyond the scope of this article and unknown to the author.


There are various symptoms that might be noted in a patient with hyponatremia. For instance, the patient may be confused. Weakness is something that might be noticed. A loss of appetite can occur. The muscles can be impacted by things such as cramping and spasms. The person might feel nauseated and vomiting is possible. Additionally, a headache may show up. If the hyponatremia becomes more extreme, then neurological symptoms may present.

Moreover, symptoms may be noticed that are related to underlying medical conditions that have caused the hyponatremia. These conditions may lead to a wide range of clinical presentations.


A range of medical conditions can lead to hyponatremia. Several of the potential reason are noted here. For instance, cirrhosis of the liver can lead to this situation. General swelling (or massive edema) is another possibility. This low level of sodium can also be brought on because of heart failure.


Many, but not all, of the reasons behind hyponatremia can be classified into the following three categories: hypervolemic, euvolemic, and hypovolemic. If the condition is brought on by cirrhosis, that is an example of the first type. As for the second classification, cases of it can be brought on by a condition known as SIADH, amongst many other causes. Regarding the third category, anything that leads to hypovolemia (a decreased blood volume) can potentially cause it.

Some causes do not fit into those three categories. Miscellaneous reasons for hyponatremia include hypothyroidism and primary polydipsia.

Diagnosis and treatment

Talk with a doctor or other professional in medicine for information related to the diagnosis and treatment of hyponatremia. Of course, some aspects of the treatment that is prescribed will vary depending on factors such as the reason that is behind the condition.

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